One of the key issues that people who are setting up cities have to deal with is the issue of how they can get potable water for their cities’ residents. It is not as easy an issue as it may seem at first: because a city (even a modest sized one) consumes mind-boggling quantities of water. And if you are person who regularly reads the major world publications such as the Time, the Newsweek and the Economist, you will have learnt that water is actually one of the resources that attract major conflicts in the world, because it is such a key resource. So the question of getting water for a city is not an easy question.
The first way in which a city can get potable water for its residents is by establishing a dam, especially if a major river happens to be passing close by. Actually you can establish a dam on a river that is some distance away and then pump the water to the city, but you have to understand that pumping water costs money.
The second way in which a city can get potable water for its residents is by tapping mountain springs, if there happens to be a major mountain close by. Again, you can get water from the springs on a mountain that is far away, the only challenge you will encounter is that of managing the pumping costs.
The third way in which a city can get potable water for its residents is by drilling a series of boreholes. The problem with borehole water tends to be in the fact that it is a finite resource: the water eventually dries up.
There are other options, such as those of recycling waste water into potable water and that of desalinating sea water. But these are rather expensive, and the cost associated with these options often makes them unviable.